Water Pollution in Africa Hazards Ultimate Number 1 to eliminate definitely

 

1. Water Pollution in Africa hazards Ultimate         Number 1 to eliminate definitely.

2. WHAT THE HACK IS WaterBody Pollution         in Africa?                                 

3. And what means WaterSystem in crisis               rural urban Africa‘?                     

4. What is Water-Body Poll?                 

5. USDA invests drinking water quality and             wastewater management;               

6. What about Food & Water Security

7. What are Wastewater quality Standards?                                                                                                        8. and Wastewater Storm-water?         

9.What about Quality and wastewater?

      

ONLY DIRTY PEOPLE know what it is: the ones who pollute, BUT NOT everyone who drinks polluted water (and is polluted)! Believe me: illiterate people don’t know, camels do know!

Now, the story about Contamination in African Continent, especially Water-Body Pollution in Africa vs. (current) USA: 

1. Water Pollution in Africa hazards Ultimate Number 1 to eliminate definitely. 

https://www.modernghana.com/news/906834/the-threat-of-environmental-hazards-in-africa.html   To CITE: Africa has 17% of the world’s forests. Spontaneous deforestation for firewood, valuable trees leads to a reduction of forests. Africa has lost 90% of evergreen coastal rain-forests. In Madagascar, for example, evergreen forests are preserved only in small areas in the east of the island. A crucial problem in Africa is the shortage of fresh water.

 

Water Pollution in Africa hazards - New pollution risk maps for Africa...- upgro.org - 683x550 px
Water Pollution in Africa hazards Ultimate Number 1 to Eliminate DefinitelyNew pollution risk maps for Africa…- upgro.org – 683×550 px

. 

2. WHAT THE HACK IS Water Pollution in Africa?

https://www.waterpebble.com/water-pollution-in-africaTo CITE: Africa has the advantage of producing some of the most precious minerals, not easily found in many other parts of the world. While this might sound good for the continent, the process of mining these minerals contributes to water pollution.  

 

Water Pollution in Africa Hazards Ultimate Number 1 to eliminate definitely
                           Water Pollution in Africa Hazards Ultimate Number 1 to eliminate definitely

 

WaterBody Pollution in Africa
Water Contamination in Africa: will Giant Aloes still grow???

 

https://www.waterpebble.com/water-pollution-in-africa/  To CITE: Africa has the advantage of producing some of the most precious minerals, not easily found in many other parts of the world. While this might sound good for the continent, the process of mining these minerals contributes to water pollution.

 

3. WaterBody in crisis rural urban Africa

https://thewaterproject.org/pdf/rural-and-urban-systemwater-issues-africa.pdf    To CITE:                                  Rural and Urban Issues in Africa. By Lori Lewis. Africa faces huge challenges with multiple issues that adversely affect public health. One major Challenge is the ability for both rural and urban African to access a clean supply.                                                

WaterBody in crisis rural urban Africa - waterscarcitymap-askchange.com-803x500-pix.jpg;
WaterBody in crisis rural urban Africa – waterscarcitymap-askchange.com-803×500-pix.jpg; 9 May 2021 55 KB 803 by 500 pixels: Physical scarcity: red, Economic scarcity: yellow

 

4. WaterBody Poll – WaterSystem public opinion data and analysis 

Florida voters cherish clean waterways and are willing to pay for  it. In a recent statewide poll of registered voters, 62.4% said they had be willing to pay an extra $2 a month for projects to  lean up Florida’s waterways. So the poll’s sponsors, the Brevard Indian River Lagoon Coalition and the Clean WaterSystem Coalition of Indian River County  are asking the state’s five water-system management districts to raise their property tax rates by 0.1 mills, or 10 cents for every $1,000 of taxable value. That would be an extra $18.70 a year, or $1.56 a month, for a $237,000 home (the median assessed value for a house in Florida) with a $50,000 homestead exemption.       

                 

water poll
                                                WaterBody Poll

                                     

5. USDA invests drinking watersupply caliber and effluent management 

https://www.usda.gov/media/press-releases/2019/11/19/usda-invests-drinking-water-quality-and-wastewater-management   To CITE: WASHINGTON, Nov. 19, 2019 – U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development Donald “DJ” LaVoy today announced that the department is investing $635 million in 122 projects (PDF, 315 KB) to improve water systems and wastewater handling  services in rural communities in 42 states. USDA is funding the projects through the Water and Waste Disposal Loan and …

My Comment: I recognize President Trump, in the back-ground, if he continues like that …

                                       

 

USDA invests drinking water quality and wastewater management 
USDA invests drinking watersupply character and sewage management

 

https://www.gwp.org/en/CRITICAL-CHALLENGES1/Water-and-Food-Security/ To CITE: At the core of food security is access to healthy food and optimal nutrition. Food access is closely linked to food supply, so food security is dependent on a healthy and sustainable food system. The food system includes the production, processing, distribution, marketing, affordability, and consumption of food. 

Water-Pollution-in-Africa-hazards-Ultimate-Number-1-to-eliminate-definitely-What-will-be-the-impact-of-water-scarcity-on-food-security-slideshare.net
WaterSystem Pollution in Africa hazards Ultimate Number 1 to eliminate definitelyWhat will be the impact of waterbody scarcity on food security slideshare.net

 

Food & Water Security
Food & WaterSystem Security

 

7. What are Sewage caliber Standards? 

Quality and Wastewater

Wastewater quality standards
Sewage caliber standards: testing

 

8. Effluent Storm-water

https://www.deq.ok.gov/water-quality-division/wastewater-storm-water/  To CITE: Sewage & Storm-waterEffluent and storm-water are regulated under the Clean Water Act and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program. DEQ has received delegation from EPA to implement these programs for the State of Oklahoma.

Wastewater Storm-water - Underground Drainage System Design - Round Designs - adobetitle.com - 2400x1600 px
Sewage Storm-water – Underground Drainage System Design – Round Designs – adobetitle.com – 2400×1600 px

9. Caliber and Effluent

see 7.

Quality and Wastewater I UN-Water unwater.org - 1000x668 px
Character and Sewage I UN-Water unwater.org – 1000×668 px

A case Study:                      

Double Agenda Mining Activities cause Tarkwa Water-Body Pollution!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

After citing the Abstract and Conclusions of the Report about the ONLY Multi-Variate Statistical Study about this issue of February 2010, I will give my own comments:

In short, the Study was performed through a cooperation between the Centre for Environmental Impact Analysis and Scientists of the University at Cape Coast that time.

Quoting the Abstract:

Application of multivariate statistics for the interpretation of surface and groundwater data from Tarkwa, a mining community in the Western region of Ghana, is presented in this study. Effluents from extractive industries established over the last half-century within the study area are directly discharged onto surrounding land and surface bodywater constituting point and non-point sources of contamination for groundwater in the study area. In the Tarkwa mining area, large deposits of mine wastes, ore stockpiles, and waste rocks have become a heap around the place. Twelve parameters including trace elements (Cu, Mn, Cd, Fe, Pb, As, Hg and Zn) and physicochemical parameters (pH, conductivity, turbidity and total dissolved salts) were monitored on 49 sampling points including surface and groundwater. Data set was analyzed using factor analysis (FA). FA identified four factors responsible for data structure explaining 69% of total variance in surface bodywater and two factors in groundwater explaining 79% and allowed the grouping of selected parameters according to common features. This study underscores the value of multivariate statistical analysis for evaluation and interpretation of the data with a view to stimulating better policy outcomes and decision-making that positively impacts waterbody quality and thus prospectively diminishes the pollution caused by hazardous toxic elements in mining environments.

Now, this abstract does NOT highlight the main conclusions to be drawn from the study! Because of what is relevant here: pollution of those waters, with which metals mainly, and in what degree? Relevant for ALL stakeholders involved: the contaminators, and contaminated!

To quote the Conclusion:

The above analysis demonstrates the use of multivariate statistical techniques to study the source/genesis of chemical parameters in surface- and groundwater systems.  Twelve parameters including trace elements (Cu, Mn, Cd, Fe, Pb, As, Hg and Zn) and physicochemical parameters (pH, conductivity, turbidity and total dissolved salts) have been monitored on 49 sampling points from a survey conducted in surface- and ground-water within the Tarkwa mining area in Ghana. Data set was analyzed using factor analysis (FA). FA identified four factors responsible for data structure explaining 69% of total variance in surface sytemwater and two factors in groundwater explaining 79% and allowed to group selected parameters according to common features. Based on Factor analysis on surface waterbody, Factor model 1 is interpreted to be mercury-contaminated water. This is because the element Hg has the highest correlation value (0.687). Within the study area, illegal Artisanal Small Scale Miners (also referred to as galamseyers) use mercury extensively in their activities. The mercury is a steady source of contamination of the surface water in the Tarkwa area. The use of mercury in gold mining by the Artisanal Small Scale Miners constitutes a point source of contamination. Based on Factor analysis on groundwater, Factor model 1 is interpreted to be Cadmium contaminated groundwater. This is because Cd has a high correlation value (0.891) even though mercury appeared in the model to have the highest correlation value; its levels in both surface and ground- were of the order of parts per billion. This source of contamination is largely anthropogenic.

MAIN conclusions quoted:

Broadly, most of the waterbodies in the study area have mean levels of arsenic, iron, mercury, zinc, and lead which are above WHO and GEPA guideline values.

High concentrations associated with high coefficients of variation, therefore, suggest anthropogenic sources for arsenic, iron, mercury, zinc, and lead.

This situation makes it imperative to establish an environmental monitoring scheme to check the concentration levels of heavy metals within the Tarkwa mining area of Ghana.

So, what do you think: are WaterBody Pollution in Africa and ‘WaterSystem in crisis rural urban Africainter-connected? Of course: the report reveals, that when you pollute water, clean water is becoming high in demand!!! To discuss:  – The principle ‘the Polluter has to pay for the Pollution‘ versus ‘WaterBody Poll‘ in Florida (U.S.A.) – residents willing to pay for cleaning up. Even the Federal Government through the USDA invests drinking water quality and wastewater management. In contrast we see WaterSystem in crisis Rural Urban Africa.                                             

MY COMMENTS TO THE GHANAIAN REPORT, IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT MINING-PRACTICES:

Why the Title: Double Agenda? Because NOTHING in published facts has convinced the people in the Western Region, that anything has changed in the mining practices. On the contrary, pollution has increased since 2010! AND consequently my health is at stake!! Contamination with Mercury of surface and ground water is still going on, because Galamsey is not stopped and keeping to the conditions of the mining-licenses in Tarkwa is highly contentious. See literature Health Effects of Heavy Metals.

MY ADVICE:
WHAT IS IMPERATIVE?  
TRANSPARENCY IN MINING PRACTICES AND HEALTH-PROTECTIVE MEASURES (IN THIS CASE IN TARKWA). The Local Government and Public Health facilities are bound to that policy.
ELIMINATION OF ALL TOXIC HEAVY METALS ISSUED IN WASTE-WATER FROM ALL MINING-AREAS
INSTITUTION OF WATER-WATCH GROUPS
ANY COVER-UP in this respect breaks Ghana’s Public Health Laws and is consequently criminal: because poisoning leads to death eventually. EVENTUALLY PERSECUTION OF THE PERPETRATORS through FAST-TRACK COURT PROCEDURES.
INVOLVEMENT OF GHANA ARMED FORCES, BNI (Ghana Secret Services) & INTERPOL TO ENFORCE THE LAW.
INTRODUCTION OF LAW-ENFORCED NON-TOXIC GOLD EXTRACTION METHODS.

List of Reference Literature concerning ongoing WaterBody Pollution in the Tarkwa Area (chronological order):

https://www.cross-africa-irrigation-project.org/new/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/2003-2dWaterBody_quality_Nitrate_factsheet.pdf

https://www.cross-africa-irrigation-project.org/new/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/2006-2007-ENVIRONMENT-AND-HEALTH.pdf

https://www.cross-africa-irrigation-project.org/new/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/2010-Mining-Pollution-Tarkwa-Area-Multivariate-Statistics.pdf

https://www.cross-africa-irrigation-project.org/new/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/2011-Anticorruption-Methods-and-Tools-in-WaterSystem_Lo_Res_WaterBody-Watch-Groups.pdf

https://www.cross-africa-irrigation-project.org/new/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/2011-Contamination-Ground-Bodywater-in-Tarkwa-Area_Samuel-Eshun-Thesis.pdf

https://www.cross-africa-irrigation-project.org/new/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/2011-Status-of-Environmental-Contamination-in-Ghana-2009.pdf

https://www.cross-africa-irrigation-project.org/new/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/2012-Water-Quality-Index_Gold-Mining-TARKWA.pdf

https://www.cross-africa-irrigation-project.org/new/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/2016-corruption-and-the-environment-2471-8726-1000173-2016.pdf

https://www.cross-africa-irrigation-project.org/new/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/2016-Water-Pollution-resulting-from-Mining-Industry-(Kano_Nigeria).pdf

https://www.cross-africa-irrigation-project.org/new/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/2017-Groundwater_Vulnerabilty_Assessment-Tarkwa-Area-2017.pdf

https://www.cross-africa-irrigation-project.org/new/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/2017-the-impact-of-corruption-on-access-to-safe-water-and-sanitation-for-people-living-in-poverty.pdf

https://www.cross-africa-irrigation-project.org/new/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/2018-8-2_Beyond-the-MDG-water-target-to-universal-water-coverage-in-ghana-2018.pdf

https://www.cross-africa-irrigation-project.org/new/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/WATER-IS-HEALTH_Powerpoint-Picture.pptx

List of Reference Literature concerning recent Research in Health Effects of Heavy Metals (chronological order)

2014-april-june_Toxicity-mechanism-and-health-effects-of-some-heavy-metals_Mercury _ITX-7-060.pdf

2014-august-september_Health-Effects-of-chronic-Arsenic-Exposure-jpmph-47-5-245.pdf

2016-april-june_researchgate_net_302393372_mercury-lead-arsenic-Impact-on_environment-human-health.pdf

2017_Mercury-and-Arsenic-AACC.org.html

2017_Heavy-Metals_Mercury-and-Arsenic_Toxic-Free-Future.html

Above Post contains a Plead for  Water Pollution in Africa Hazards Ultimate Number 1 to eliminate definitely!                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    So far: WaterBody Pollution in Africa hazards Ultimate Number 1 to eliminate definitely, WaterSystem in crisis rural urban Africa, Water-Supply Poll, WaterSystem Pollution in Africa causes and effects, USDA invests drinking water quality and wastewater management, WaterSystem & Food Security, Quality and wastewater, Wastewater quality standards, Wastewater storm-water

Water Pollution in Africa Hazards Ultimate Number 1 to eliminate definitely

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