International discussion-development in Africa, showed clearly 1. Ultimate Africa’s Comprehensive Irrigation Issue Number 1, from 2015 till 2018: or, an Echo of the 2. Advantages Vision & Objectives C.A.I.P. (since October 2015): Likely caused by Climate Change. Three relevant topics ‘crop up’: 3. Agriculture in Africa 4. Drip Irrigation System 5. Agricultural investment Africa low numerous opportunities
Will the African Union consider ‘Climate Change? And are Events and Documents developed in the period 2015-2018 of African Union and United Nations Economic Commission for Africa relevant in this respect? They will shed a bright light on the question, whether a shift of opinion took place or not. The question is, whether Top Africa’s Emergence of All-inclu-sive Water-Supply Number 1 (an Echo of C.A.I.P.’s Vision & Opinion), is an issue or not, for the A.U. or UNECA (UN Economic Commission for Africa).
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/617191468212388493/441650WP0BOX321rigation1BP01PUBLIC1.doc To Cite: Africa Region: Irrigation Business Plan. 1. Strategic Framework. 1.1 Background. Eighty-five percent of Africa’s poor live in rural areas and depend largely on agriculture for their livelihoods. Agricultural growth is therefore clearly key to poverty reduction and economic growth.
Ultimate Africa’s Comprehensive Irrigation Issue Number 1, resulting in skulls anywhere?
2. Advantages Vision & Objectives C.A.I.P.:
Suffice to refer to the subject ‘Vision & Objectives C.A.I.P. which follows.
https://www.howwemadeitinafrica.com/agriculture-africa-potential-versus-reality/57635/ To CITE: With more than 60% of its 1.166 billion people living in rural areas, Africa’s economy is inherently dependent on agriculture. More than 32% of the continent’s gross domestic product comes from the sector. However, agricultural productivity still remains far from developed world standards. Over 90% of agriculture depends on rainfall, with no artificial irrigation aid. The techniques used to cultivate the soil are still far behind from what has been adopted in Asia and Americas, lacking not only irrigation, but also fertilisers, pesticides and access to high-yield seeds. Agriculture in Africa also experiences basic infrastructural problems such as access to markets and financing.
4. Drip Irrigation System, the Basics az1392
To CITE: Revised 01/16 Drip Irrigation: (The Basics, Ursula Schuch) Drip irrigation – also known as low-flow, micro, and trickle Irrigation – is the slow, measured application of water through devices called emitters. It is the most efficient way to irrigate.
A wide variety of quality products has been developed to make drip irrigation reliable and easy to use for almost any landscape situation. There is a wide assortment of equipment to suit most budgets and watering needs. – Why should I use drip irrigation?
. Drip irrigation saves water because little is lost to runoff or by vaporisation. . This watering method, if implemented correctly, promotes healthy plant growth, controls weed growth, and reduces plant-sickness problems.
– What types of landscapes are best suited for drip irrigation? Most of your landscape except for turf areas. Drip systems are particularly well suited for for . desert landscapes, . places where runoff can be a problem, and . small, narrow areas such as entryways.
. Drip is also a great way to water vegetable gardens, fruit trees, and potted plants.
https://www.africaportal.org/publications/agricultural-investment-africa-low-level-numerous-opportunities/ A summary (CITED): Agricultural investment is a necessary requirement to develop and organize the agricultural sector in Africa. Africa’s agricultural potential offers opportunities to be seized in terms of intensification of production and structuring of the agricultural value chains. Although it is diversified, agricultural investment (public, private and foreign investments), remains weak. The shift towards a modern and intensive mode of agriculture must necessarily go through the development of a comprehensive agricultural policy that takes into account several components (irrigation, use of inputs and organization of marketing facilities). It should finally lead to a sufficient agricultural production that ensures food security for the population and to an active agricultural sector well integrated in the economy of African countries. Click (a YouTube video): A Prize Competition to Grow your Agri-Business!! (April 2020)
I. INTRODUCTION TO AFRICA’S COMPREHENSIVE IRRIGATION ISSSUE
To get a notion of what I mean by Topic of a Comprehensive Irrigation of Africa, you have to scroll through the following citations. The Proposal for a Cross-Africa Irriga-tion Project of OCtober 2015 contains a Section Introduction and Vision & Objectives, which I cite:
I. Introduction (to C.A.I.P, Cross-Africa Irrigation Project):
The Cross-Africa Irrigation Project is a Project for Peace for the People of Africa (social peace and peace of mind):
I Why is there a need for a project for peace for the people of Africa? From world-news resources, you will hear daily about two conflicting phenomena in Africa: 1. strife in areas with abundant bottom-minerals and 2. starvation (of people and animals) and withered crops in areas deprived of water-resources.
Ad 1. Many inter-state military co-operative actions for peace-keeping did not prevent the recent conflicts in West-Africa. If above-mentioned types of conflict occur in the same area, at the same time, the population there will become fugitive, resulting in more barren areas (by leaving of workforce); s. the report ‘Cost of Hunger in Africa’, from the U.N. Economic Commis-sion for Africa (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). History conceals, that especially the North and Mid-zone of Africa had been very likely eroded in the run of thousands of years, by the cutting of trees for war-ships, ships for trading and building of houses. This was all for the benefit of emperors and war-lords of the Roman and Carthaginian empires and seafaring Phoenicians. Africa has a legacy of colonialism for thousands of years, resulting in an enormous desert. What I will repeat in this document, is the fact, that the concept of Slavery and Industrialization are straight-away related, since the 18th Century.
Ad 2. A more permanent or long-lasting solution for civil war or inter-state conflict (i.c. in Africa) is found in the prevention of armed conflicts by initiating an irrigation project in which ALL African nations will be involved. Such a project has the big potential of creating a common goal of peaceful and lucrative character, with a bright future of Africa as a whole continent! However, initiating of an irrigation project in a certain area may lead to a confrontation with mineral exploiting companies. It is up to the Government of that territory, whether both activities may progress smoothly alongside each other or not. It means that the Government here is the pivot of all negotiations and discussions of concern.
II The role of the Cross-Africa Irrigation Project (called C.A.I.P., Cross-Project or Project), in such cases, maybe that of
1. a platform of discussion for all parties concerned with conflicting interests: winning of bottom-minerals versus irrigation-activities and conflicts of interests among the Parties to the Irrigation Project,
2. mediator through a Conciliation Commission, with the opportunity of appeal to the International Court of Justice, after local appeal-resorts have been exhausted (e.g. in the ECOWAS).
3. a creator of a Project with the creation of work for Africans, in which African Nations will have to work together to reach a common goal: that of full irrigation for the whole continent, enhancing peace on the continent.
III The role of the African Union (in irrigation in Africa):
Desert or Green Africa? African Union Headquarters, new Commission Building, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia
A. The African Union’s document ‘Africa’s Strategic Partnerships’ states, that ‘’These partnerships are consistent with the clearly defined vision and development strategy of the African Union (AU), with particular emphasis on speeding up industrialization, development of infrastructure, develop-ment, and acquisition of technology and know‐how and development of human capital, all of which are outlined in the Commission’s Strategic Plan and the AU’s NEPAD program’’. (3 types of) QUESTIONS which arise:
1. Is this vision acceptable for the People of Africa? To answer that question,
2. questions are to be answered by the economists amongst us, concerning: – who will pay for all those facilities, are they paid by the revenues from the mining of minerals and against what price? – Is there a direct relation between revenues and benefits for the People of Africa? or can you detect a (huge) gap? About the integrity of the Partners in the Partnerships, the answers for the last mentioned to be found in the character of focus of the Partners in the document ‘Africa’s Strategic Partnerships’. – Is there any analysis available, showing the ‘non‐double agenda’ motives of the Partners concerned? and showing whether this focus on ‘industrialization etc.’ mentioned above, presents the view of the People of Africa? – (and indirectly in) the AU’s NEPAD program (New Partnership for Africa’s Development of October 2001): – Who pays for the investment in this industrialization, with what currency, to whom, at the cost of what environmental contamination, – where will the revenue go, all for the benefit and welfare of the African People? – Statements are promising, but, for the ‘promised land of Africa, promised to the People of Africa?’
In this respect, it is useful to remind the African Union Organization about the recent practice of mining in Africa. Unfortunately, Chinese workers have shown their disrespect for the people of Ghana, in the Western Region by monitoring the mining‐work with armed Chinese supervisors: contaminating the agricultural fields of many farmers. This case shows the following:
by asking China to invest in industrialization, development of infrastructure, development, and acquisition of technology and know‐how and development of human capital, and so following this Vision of the African Union, you victimize your own People of Africa. Conclusion: It is HIGHLY recommendable to URGENTLY REVIEW THE PARTNERSHIP WITH THE CHINESE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC.
3. WHY HAVE THE PEOPLE OF AFRICA TO BEAR THE BRUNT OF A (MAIN) FOCUS ON INDUSTRIALI- ZATION (with the measures attached)? An answer to this question you will find in: a. Vision and Objectives (concerning the C.A.I.P.). b. there are too many hidden agenda’s or reports: without reports of the discussions at the meetings, conclusions, and content of agreements on certain matters or disagreement (in Law called: parliamentary history): are they publicized? In Statistics, we say: ‘too good to be true’.
More genuine promises are captured in the Cross‐Africa Irrigation Project with an energizing common focus, catering for reduction of conflicting interests: the focus SHOULD be on Irrigation of Africa, mining and industrialization are allowed, with restrictions on non‐contamination of the environment ruled by national and international laws.
In the African Union’s document the Strategic and Operational Plan 2014 – 2017 of the DREA, Department of Rural Economy and Agriculture of the Commission, you will not find the word ‘irrigation’ as a means of managing water‐resources to expand on. The only reference to irrigation (p. 21) to cite: ‘Drought is a more recurrent phenomenon in Africa than in other regions negatively impacting production and livelihoods, yet less than 7 % of Africa’s cropland is irrigated compared to 40 % in Asia’. I conclude: no irrigation is made available for an enormous potential (in Africa) to becoming cropland (now, desserts), which shows an obvious need for irrigation as an instrument of managing water resources. From the African Union documents mentioned under A. and B., you may without risk infer, that irrigation it is more likely that this focus on industrialization will cause speeding up and spreading of conflicts as well, which is difficult to contain. You may easily find examples in the history of industrialization in South‐Africa concomitant with its social unrest and conflicts (Apartheid was connected to this industrialization!), but more recently in West‐Africa and North‐Sudan.
IV. The role of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (in irrigation for Africa):
The Topic of Comprehensive Irrigation of Africa: African Hall, Addis Abeba, United Nations, Economic Commission for Africa, May 23, 2018
This commission did NOT report on Irrigation policies (for the whole of Africa 2015), only mentioning some regional irrigation plans.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY OF AFRICA:
‐ REFOCUS AS QUICK AS POSSIBLE AND RECALL (FOR AFRICA) THE FOCUS ON INDUSTRIALIZATION‐ONLY (incl. development of infrastructure, development, and acquisition of technology and know‐how and development of human capital)!
‐ The C.A.I.P. directly benefits the People of Africa, by increasing water‐resources for food and work‐opportunities.
‐ The C.A.I.P. allows for exploitation of bottom‐minerals and industrializa-tion, under the restriction of prevention of contamination concerning natural resources within the territories of Governments concerned.
‐ the focus, however, SHOULD be on Irrigation of Africa as a continent and NOT on industrialization or mining, because activities in bottom‐mineral exploitation come with conflicting interests, frequently resulting in armed conflicts. Activities in irrigation promote effectively the focus on a lasting peace on the continent of Africa.
– the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa has an important task to speed up studies to advise on means to PREVENT armed conflicts, caused by (speeding up of ) industrialization and mining activities.
II C.A.I.P.’s Vision and Objectives (concerning the Cross-Africa Irrigation Project):
1. Full irrigation capabilities for arid African areas, which will indirectly result in full political emancipation, independence, peace, and spiritual emancipation for the African people with respect to their cultural inheritance.
2. Irrigation will be most economically realized through natural forces, sea-/ocean-inlets and isomer differences in heights, relative to sea-level), in which process, in principle ALL irrigation channels may be connected to neighbouring natural (streaming) water resources. Irrigation will then have the following direct and indirect.
3. Important Geometrical factors, to mention Isomer differences (or differences in height of water areas) and directions of streams, will enhance irrigation:
– from high to low, AND from the Mediterranean sea, Atlantic and Indian Ocean land-inwards, by natural forces;
– from low to high AND (if necessary) from the Mediterranean sea, Atlantic and Indian Ocean land- inwards, by pump-or sluice-facilities.
– So, the involvement of water-work companies with extensive experience in the world, to realize irrigation, is essential here.
– enhanced expansion of irrigation channels AND natural water-resources by natural forces, when canalization starts from sea-harbors,
– a vast network of irrigation water-resources from the easy extension of areas to be irrigated (with increased self-purifying capacities inland-wards and need for desalination at the sea-harbors),
– a reduced need for irrigation channel constructions,
– a potential for drastically lowering the costs for the Project,
– securing work for the African People over decades of years, because the Project will cover many decennia due to many thousands of kilometres of waterways involved. The exact period this Project will cover to be successful may be estimated, after an agreement between the Parties to the Project.
– the end result of full irrigation capabilities will be the cutting edge of Africa for the World, by enhancement of a huge food-production.
– the C. A. I. P. will in principle NOT interfere with mining activities. But the African Governments involved in the Project will have to strike a balance between mining activities and irrigation activities (see Section XI, the weight of voting and responsibilities of African Governments). Mineral exploitation companies have to take environmental protective measures subject to International Environment protective laws.
– the African Union will only gain by considering the following observation, that the concept of Slavery is straight-away connected with the concept of Industrialization (from the 18th Century on).
See the relevant recent observations in Ghana, mentioned in the Introduction concerning contamination, victimizing the local population.
. This explains, why:
– certain Partnerships should be re-evaluated, on a regular basis and
– (only) focusing on industrialization will result in armed conflicts: the stakes are high AND the People of Africa feel vulnerable.
– So enhancing the focus on Irrigation and Agriculture, will have a beneficial mass-psychological effect for the People of Africa (like a mass-psycho-therapy), energized by the need for working together, to reach the goal of full irrigation of Africa.
Disadvantages (and Remedial measures):
– only when the connection of water-resources (incl. irrigation channels) will result in depletion of water- resources in other areas, which may be undesirable (or not).
– necessary desalination of water-influx from the Mediterranean sea and Atlantic or Indian oceans at the sea-harbours.
The resulting salt production and other minerals from sea-water may be used in chemical conversions for agricultural fertilization purposes (according to the principle of recycling).
– So, even disadvantages may be nullified.
– However, Parties to Project, especially African Governments may endanger activities of the C.A.I.P. in their territories AND in Africa at large, by esp.:
1. Corruption: Corruption in maintaining those laws by Parties involved, will be dealt with and discouraged by a Conciliation and Disciplinary Commission (making efforts to conciliate the interests of mining companies and the interests of Parties to the Project) and eventually by the International Court of Justice (see Section IX. 4); penalty may consist in postponement of Membership, which may affect execution of the whole C.A.I.P.
2. Armed conflicts: in case of armed conflicts between African Nations Parties to the Project, the Membership of those Parties will be postponed, till security for Irrigation Project activities in their territories may be guaranteed by the Governments concerned.
. In this way, the Cross-Africa Irrigation Project may serve as an instrument for enhancing peace between African nations. 4. Other important Political factors:
– co-operation between African Nations is necessary to make the Project successful. Hostilities should be reduced to the minimum or discouraged, to be settled by the normal diplomatic procedures.
– involvement of U.N. Specialized Organizations/Programs like the U.N. Development Program, U.N. Environmental Program, the Food & Agricultural Organization and World-Bank in this process is essential, for innumerable reasons.
Nations through which the irrigation channels will run:
Algeria, Burkina Faso, Chad, Ghana, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Sudan, indicated on the Country map* (see Forum Topics).
All other African arid areas:
Ethiopia + Somalia connecting to e.g. the Wabe Shebele Weriz river, Gulf of Aden the and Indian Ocean. Rocky area’s Namibia + South-Africa connecting to e.g. the Orange River and the Atlantic Ocean.
II. FOLLOW-UP of change in Opinions and Discussions concerning the Ultimate Africa’s Comprehensive Irrigation Issue Number 1, conform Cross-Africa Irrigation Project’s Vision & Objectives, illustrated with:
– recommended Drip Irrigation System in the
– Agriculture in Africa, financed with
– agricultural investment Africa low numerous opportunities
NOW, MAY 2018, WHAT HAS CHANGED IN THE OPINIONS AND DISCUSSIONS SINCE 2015? NOTHING, OUTSIDE? …
THE TRENDS HAVE NOT CHANGED: WITNESSED BY:
A. The Topic Irrigation in the Structure of the African Union website, April / May 2018,
B. Policies & Policymakers on irrigation in Africa, April / May 2018, and,
C. Scientific / Political Studies on Irrigation in Africa April / May 2018:
ad A. The A.U.’s website au.int. Structure:
The website mentions some Key Documents. Those, relevant for irrigation of Africa:
1. Key Document The Constitutive Act of the African Union (in the Introduction), adopted by 53 Heads of State, ‘at Lomé, Togo, this 11th day of July 2000 stating’.
A. ‘DETERMINED to take up the multifaceted challenges that confront our continent and peoples in the light of the social, economic and political changes taking place in the world’. B. article 3 Objectives, in particular, to cite the main:
(a) achieve greater unity and solidarity between the African countries and the peoples of Africa; (c) accelerate the political and socioeconomic integration of the continent; (d) promote and defend African common positions on issues of interest to the continent and its peoples; (e) encourage international cooperation, taking due account of the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; (f) promote peace, security, and stability on the continent; (g) promote democratic principles and institutions, popular participation and good govern- ance; (i) establish the necessary conditions which enable the continent to play its rightful role in the global economy and in international negotiations; (j) promote sustainable development at the economic, social and cultural levels as well as the integration of African economies; (k) promote cooperation in all fields of human activity to raise the living standards of African people; (l) coordinate and harmonize the policies between the existing and future Regional Economic Communities for the gradual attainment of the objectives of the Union; (m) advance the development of the continent by promoting research in all fields, in parti- cular in science and technology; (n) work with relevant international partners in the eradication of preventable diseases and the promotion of good health on the continent.’
My comment: those citations express political commitments, including those relating to irrigation & agriculture and in other words expressed in the Vision & Objectives of the proposed Cross-Africa Irrigation Project / Organization, c.q. African Environmental Protection Agency as well.
2. Key Document Overview of Agenda 2063: Agenda 2063, a 50 yr. plan for Africa’s structural transformation was agreed upon by the African Union Golden Jubilee of May 2013.
My comment: ALL of ‘OUR ASPIRATIONS FOR THE AFRICA WE WANT’, are relevant for irrigation of Africa, to cite:
‘1. A prosperous Africa based on inclusive growth and sustainable development.
2. An integrated continent politically united and based on the ideals of Pan-Africanism and the vision of Africa’s Renaissance.
3. An Africa of good governance, democracy, respect for human rights, justice and the rule of law.
4. A peaceful and secure Africa.
5. An Africa with a strong cultural identity, com-mon heritage, values and ethics.
6. An Africa where development is people-driven, unleashing the potential of its women and youth.
7. Africa as a strong, united and influential global player and partner.’
In the Summary Executive Dr. Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma Chairperson wrote: (CITED) … As a Commission, we are therefore focused on address-ing eight key priorities which this strategic plan has translated into concrete and annualized targets in the following key areas that impact directly on the welfare, lives, and livelihoods of Africans in all works of life’ .
My comment: Key areas which are in particular relevant in the field of irrigation: 1. Human capacity development focusing on health, education, science, research, technoology, and innovation; 2. Agriculture and agro-processing; 3. Inclusive economic development through industrialization, infrastructure development, agriculture and trade and investment;
4. Key Documents: Decisions and Declarations of the Assembly (1963 – Current, April 27, 2018):
4.A. The 2014 AU Year of Agriculture and Food Security, at the 23rd Ordinary Session of the AU Assembly in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea, from 26-27 June 2014 during which AU Heads of State and Government adopted the Malabo Declaration on Accelerated Agricultural Growth And Transformation for Shared Prosperity And Improved Livelihoods. 9 (IX) Commitments:
I Recommitment to the Principles and Values of the CAADP Process (of the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme). II Enhancing Investment Finance in Agriculture. III Commitment to Ending Hunger in Africa by 2025. IV Commitment to Halving Poverty by the year 2025, through Inclusive Agricultural Growth and Transformation. V Commitment to Boosting Intra-African Trade in Agricultural commodities/services. VI Commitment to Enhancing Resilience of Livelihoods and Production Systems to Climate variability and other related risks. VII Commitment to Mutual Accountability to Actions and Results. VIII Strengthening the African Union Commission to support delivery on these commitments. IX A Call for Action.
4.B. 14th CAADP Partnership Platform calls for the realization of the AU Malabo commitments on agriculture through National Agriculture Investment Plans.
My comment: All those commitments are TOO ambitious: see the P.I.D.A. study and UN Economic and Social Council Background paper on the sub-theme ‘Clean water and sanitation!
5. R.E.A. (Rural Economy & Agriculture)-theme Documents which contain the term ‘irrigation’:
My comment: in total 17 documents, published since 2015, contain the term ‘irrigation’, of which 8 were issued in 2016, ONE on April 20, 2017, CAADP Technical Guidelines for reporting on Malabo, REV2. and ONE IN 2018 (https://au.int/en/pressreleases), 27th April 2018, CAADP Partnership Platform calls for the realization of the AU – Malabo-commitments: ‘driving an African Continental revolution, by a.o. improving the management of natural resources (irrigation?)’,
6. Performance on the commitments set out in the Malabo Declaration: (19th January 2018, African Union launches Africa Agriculture Transformation-Scorecard (AATS):
My comment: the report revealed that only 20 of the 47 Member States that reported are on track towards achieving the commitments set out in the Malabo Declaration (score-card max. 10). Rwanda leads the top 10 best performers with a score of 6.1, followed by Mali (5.6), Morocco (5.5), Ethiopia (5.3), Togo (4.9), Malawi (4.9), Kenya (4.8), Mauritania (4.8), Burundi (4.7), and Uganda (4.5). The A.U. officially launched the Score-card on 25th January 2018.
Ad B. African Union policies and policymakers on irrigation, April / May 2018:
1. In the Constitutive Act of the African Union
(Cited) Introduction (DETERMINED to take up the multifaceted challenges that confront our continent and peoples in the light of the social, economic and political changes taking place in the world; art. 3 (all Objectives) and art. 4 (all Principles).
Summary (cited): the Council serves as the principal inter-governmental body on water issues and is composed of all 53 African Ministers responsible for water affairs in the region. The Council has the following functions, to cite: ‘1. To keep the state of Africa’s water resources under review and promote desirable actions of common interest to Africa. 2. To facilitate sub-regional, regional and international cooperation through the coordination of issues relating to water policies and actions among African countries. 3. To support international cooperation on water-related issues through the development of common positions on matters of global concerns as well as cooperation in the implementation of relevant conventions and international agreements. 4. To encourage mechanisms that promote best practices in water policy reforms, integrated water resource management, food security, water supply and sanitation, and also assist in the 5. To provide a forum for dialogue with UN agencies and other partners on water programmes. 6. To promote, in the region, studies regarding climate change, develop policies and strategies for the management of water resources during drought and floods and develop policies and strategies for averting water crises in Africa. 7. To keep under reviews and constantly seek to strengthen the financing of the water sector in Africa 8. To promote sub-regional and basin-wide cooperation.’
3. STC (Specialized Technical Committee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Water and Environment)
p. 60 A.U. Handbook 201, to cite: ‘In addition to the functions provided for in the AU Constitutive Act, the STC’s Rules of Procedure, aricle 5, include the following powers and functions in its sectors: – reviewing strategic goals and identifying synergies and linkages, as well as implications for achieving the overarching goals of the Malabo Declaration on Accelerated Agricultural Growth and Transformation for Shared Prosperity and Improved Livelihoods (of June 2014); – boosting the agenda for attaining food and nutrition security; – reducing poverty; – boosting intra-African trade; – enhancing resilience to climate change, related shocks and disasters. The STC first met in October 2015 and is scheduled to meet in ordinary session every two years, most recently from 2 to 6 October 2017, in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia.’
https://www.focac.org/eng/Itda/dwjbzjjhys_1/t1327961.htm. Try to click (URL has been deleted). The Preamble CITED: ‘Preamble 1.1 The Johannesburg Summit and the 6th Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) were held in Johannesburg from 3 to 5 December 2015. Heads of State and Government, Heads of Delegation, the Chairperson of the African Union (AU) Commission and Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Ministers in charge of economic cooperation from China and 50 African countries (hereafter referred to as ‘the two sides’) attended the Summit and Ministerial Conference respectively. 1.2 The two sides reviewed with satisfaction the development of relations between China and Africa and applauded the positive contribution FOCAC had made over the past 15 years since it inception in advancing the comprehensive and in-depth development of China-Africa relations, and agreed that FOCAC had become both a key platform for collective dialogue between China and African countries, and an effective mechanism for practical cooperation. 1.3 The two side share the view that, as China works for the Two Centenary Goals and as Africa implements Agenda 2063 and its First 10-Year Implementation Plan, the current development strategies of China and Africa are highly compatible. The two sides shall make full use of their comparative advantages to transform and upgrade mutually beneficial cooperation focusing on better quality and higher efficiency to ensure the common prosperity of our peoples. 1.4 The two sides are satisfied with the effective implementation of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation Beijing Action Plan (2013-2015) adopted at the 5th Ministerial Conference of COCAC, and decide, in the spirit of the Johannesburg Declaration of the Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, to jointly establish and develop comprehensive strategic and cooperative partnership between China and Africa featuring political equality and mutual trust, economic cooperation for win-win results, exchanges and mutual learning between Chinese and African civilizations, mutual assistance in security affairs, as well as solidarity and cooperation in international affairs. 1.5 In order to implement the outcomes of the Summit and the Conference, and chart the course of China-Africa friendly and mutually beneficial cooperation in all fields in the next three years under the theme ‘China-Africa Progressing Together: Win-Win Cooperation for Common Development’, the two sides jointly formulate and adopt with consensus this Action Plan.’
My comments: 1. THE STATEMENT OF ‘BOTH PARTIES’ GIVES AGAIN PROOF OF THE DOUBLE STANDARDS APPLIED IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE A.U. AND THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA. The Forum on China-Africa Cooperation Johannesburg Action Plan of 3-5th December 2015 mentions: art. 1.2 The two sides reviewed with satisfaction … and … art. 1.5. … mutually beneficial cooperation in all fields in the next three years under the theme of ‘China-Africa Progressing Together: Win-Win Cooperation for Common Development’: CLEARLY, NOREFERENCE IS MADE TO THE MALPRACTICE OF CHINESE WORKERS / SUPERVISORS IN THE MINING-INDUSTRY IN THE WESTERN REGION OF GHANA (TARKWA), THE VERY YEAR THAT THIS FORUM WAS REAFFIRMED!!! 2. Interestingly, on 13th May 2018, you could see the internet message (cited): Sorry, the web-page you browsed has been deleted! (this text in China’s national color ..) Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People’s Republic of China Copyright@2004 Contact Us Address: No. 2, Chaoyangmen Nandajie, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100701 Tel: 86-10065961114. My Comment: Have in mind, that the internet traffic in, from and towards China is restricted (for political reasons)! China raised eyebrows this month by announcing it will give the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) a 31.6 million US Dollarsgrant to build a new headquarters in Abidjan, Nigeria. Click Aricle published at website foxnow 3. If you have read the article, you will get many questions about the motivations of China’s President to ‘donate’ millions of dollars for the building of the HQ of the African Union building and Economic Community of West Africa. But ALSO concerning the reasons of A.U. and ECOWAS to ACCEPT those grants from China. The argument of the President of ECOWAS is credible: because of corruption in African Governments, even sharing the costs of $2 million (to build) is ‘too much’ for the EC)WAS member-stats, and enough to grab the offer from President Xi Jinping! 4. A similar article (click), you may read on the Financial Times website of 29th January 2018, with the difference, that A.U. Officials have now accused China, of hacking their A.U. computes (exposing A.U.’ weak political position towards China, ‘the other side’!! 5. UN Economic and Social Council for Africa: s. under C.. Scientific / Political Studies on Irrigation in Africa.
Ad C. Scientific / Political Studies on Irrigation in Africa, April / May 2018
1. UN Economic and Social Council Background Paper on the sub-theme ‘Clean water and sanitation.’ The section relevant for irrigation management (5):
A. The facts cited: – Water resource potential: ‘Water is critical to achieving the desire of the African people for rapid economic growth that leads to an Africa free of poverty and hunger, as reflected in Agenda 2063 of the African Union and the 2030 Agenda’. – ‘Most major river basins in Africa are shared by five or more countries and have a huge potential for energy production through hydro-power, estimated at 1.4 million GWh per year. However, Africa produces only about 3 percent of global hydro-power and exploits only about 10 percent of its technical potential’. – With regard to irrigation potential, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reported that more than 70 percent of Africa’s irrigation takes place in the five major basins, namely the Congo, Niger, Nile, Senegal, and Zambezi river basins.
B. Necessary topics to address: For Africa to achieve the equitable and sustainable use and management of water resources for poverty alleviation, socioeconomic development, regional cooperation and environmental sustainability, all responsible and concerned parties need to determine, to cite: ‘(a) To what extent and through which mechanisms can such trans-boundary water resources be cooperatively developed to meet rising demand; (b) To what extent can water resources be efficient, equitably and sustainably allocated and used; and (c) What are the possible ways and means by which water scarcity can be alleviated or mitigated in order to achieve economic development in the context of climate change?’
2. NEPAD-2017 Country Performances Reporting format on Malabo (Eng): Document for preparing country Biennial Review report on progress made for achieving the Malabo:
Background: the Country progress Reporting Template has been prepared to support African Union Member States in collecting data for their agricultural transformation reports to the African Union Summit on progress made for implementing Commitments in the June 2014 AU Heads of States Malabo Declaration on Accelerated Agricultural Growth and Transformation for Shared Prosperity and Improved Livelihoods
– a programme founded by the 18th Summit of the African Heads of State and Governments in January 2012 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia:
– a joint initiative of the African Union Commission (AUC), the New Partnership for Africa’s Development Planning and Coordination Agency (NPCA), and the African Development Bank (AfDB) and
– developed in cooperation with the NEPAD Agency, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) and Regional Economic Communities (RECs), promotes regional economic integration by building mutually beneficial infrastructure and strengthening the ability of countries to trade and establish regional value chains for increased competitiveness:
A. to cite the facts:
‘Infrastructure is Africa’s top priority. With low levels of intra-regional economic exchange and the smallest share of global trade, Africa is the least integrated continent in the world. Infrastructure inefficiencies are costing Africa billions of dollars annually and are stunting growth. Bridging this gap can only be achieved through regional and continental cooperation and solution finding’.
B. the Plans cited:
‘The 51 PIDA Priority Action Plan (PAP) programms and projects are spread across the four sectors of Energy, Transport, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Trans-boundary Water. The programms and projects are expected to lead to an integrated continent, fuelling international trade, job creation, and sustainable economic growth. In order to boost intra-African trade and raise the continent’s competitiveness in the global economy, the programm sets out short-term goals to be achieved by 2020, medium-term goals to be achieved by 2030 and long-term goals by 2040. PIDA is a solution by and for Africans which was endorsed by African Heads of State and Government at their 18th Summit in January 2012 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.’
C. the Projected Budgets:
An annual investment of USD 93 billion is required for Africa to meet its infrastructure needs – USD 40.92 billion (44 percent) for energy, USD 21.39 billion (23 percent) for water and sanitation, USD18.6 billion (20 percent) for transport, USD 9.3 billion (10 percent) for ICTs and USD 2.79 billion (3 percent) for irrigation. So, a total of USD 24.18 billion (26 percent) is required for water.
Relevant sections relating to irrigation in Africa:
1. Why PIDA? Why now? 2. A growing Africa; 5. The outlook for trans-boundary water resources through 2040; 7. Doing things differently: a strategic framework for regional infrastructure projects; 8. The Priority Action Plan (PAP): a portfolio of projects that will promote integration and growth; 9. Implementing the PAP: institutional arrangements to overcome fragmentation; 10. Risks to PIDA – and to Africa; 11. Annex I: PIDA PAP, by sector: Transport, Energy, Trans-boundary water resources, I&CT;
A. The facts cited: – ‘Many areas of Africa’s continent experience greater water stress and scarcity. Causes: absence of advances in regional cooperation and burgeoning demand for water. – Africa’s unevenly distributed trans-boundary water resources have the potential to contribute to food and energy production and to poverty reduction. – Africa’s total internal renewable water resources (IRWR, the long-term average annual flow of water and recharge of aquifers generated from endogenous precipitation) is 9,2% of the world, against Asia’s 28% IRWR and South-America’s 29,1% IRWR. – Africa has the lowest level of irrigated agriculture of any world region, presently.’ B. The object of study: – 10 African lake and river basins and 3 underground water systems, bordering on most of the African countries, accounting for 51,5 % of African land area and 80% of the total area of the African international basins. – The area equipped for irrigation represented around 20% of the estimated potential in those basins, at present. C. Method of study: – Statistical analysis: Water requirements will vary with population growth, the degree of expansion of irrigation and other difficult to estimate series of economic, technical, climatic factors, and political choices, over the next three decades. Those variables provided the basis for alternate scenarios for the African continent: estimates with an expected order of magnitude, of future withdrawals for irrigation. – 2 examples of the upper-bound scenario (irrigation accounts for 100% of the increase in food requirements): a gap between food production-demand filled by rain-fed agriculture and international imports. Under the scenario ‘business as usual’ irrigation-development and medium popula-tion growth, the irrigated cereal production will be about 67 million tons (against 34 million tons in 2005) in 2040. Then cereal requirements will be 319 million tons (against 192 million tons in 2005). D. Proposed solutions: a. complement cereal deficit with rain-fed agriculture or cereal imports. My comment: cereal imports from China: thank you, Africa!! Question: against what kind of costs??? b. intensify food production, requiring the ‘right balance’ between rain-fed and irrigated agriculture by expanding irrigated areas, increasing irrigation efficiency (alleged example: drip systems) increasing the yield of stressed river basins and weighing the possibility of inter-basin water transfer. E. Problems discerned: 1. It will be difficult to meet projected requirements without damaging the environment (example: Nile delta). 2. In 2005 about half the African continent experiences some sort of water stress or water scarcity. 3. In 2040 this situation will become significantly more aggravated. Then, the only regions where the IRWR per capita is considered as sufficient, are the Congo River basin and the Western Gulf of Guinea. Reminder: IRWR stands for the Internal Renewable Water Resources (the long-term average annual flow of water and recharge of aquifers generated from endogenous precipitation, rainfall). 4. In 2040 most of the countries sharing international river basins are likely to be confronted with severe water scarcity in 2040 (except the Congo).
F. Findings of the Study: Critically, the biggest challenge for expansion of agricultural production in Africa is the low efficiency of production. G. Expectations: By 2040 Africa’s water requirements are expected to increase significantly, being irrigated agriculture the largest consumer by far. Between now and 2040, Africa’s population is expected to double as well, so will be the demand for food, especially for cereals.
III. CONCLUSION of the Analysis of a change in Opinions and Discussions concerning the Problem of All-inclusive Irrigation of Africa, conform C.A.I.P’s Vision & Objectives! Highlighted with questions about Agricultural investment Africa low numerous oppor- tunities, Agriculture in Africa, and Drip Water-Supply System.
A. About Irrigation in the Structure of the African Union website, April / May 2018:
the citations mentioned in Introduction and art. 3 (Objectives) express political commitments, including those relating to irrigation & agriculture and in other words expressed in the Vision & Objectives of the proposed Cross-Africa Irrigation Project / Organization, c.q. African Environmental Protection Agency as well.
which enumerates ALL of ‘OUR ASPIRATIONS FOR THE AFRICA WE WANT’, implies aspirations which are relevant for irrigation of Africa.
However, the African Union has no Vision for Irrigation of Africa! Whilst the Cross-Africa Irrigation Project/ Organization has a C.A.I.P.’s Vision & Objectives and makes an Issue of Comprehensive Irrigation for Africa. Consequently, the African Union does NOT prioritize to secure the food supply for their OWN (African) people! Priority is here rather securing investments from foreign sources! The African people miss the chance to get jobs in the agriculture and irrigation!
includes 3 Key areas (of the 8) which are in particular relevant in the field of irrigation: 1. Human capacity development focusing on health, education, science, research, technology, and innovation; 2. Agriculture and agro-processing; 3. Inclusive economic development through industrialization, infrastructure development, agriculture and trade and investment;
Key Documents: Decisions and Declarations of the Assembly (1963 – Current, April 27, 2018): – Malabo Declaration on Accelerated Agricultural Growth And Transformation for Shared Prosperity And Improved Livelihoods. 9 (IX) Commitments.
– 14th CAADP Partnership Platform calls for the realization of the AU Malabo commitments on agriculture through National Agriculture Investment Plans: All those commitments are TOO ambitious: see the PIDA study and UN Economic and Social Council Background paper on the subtheme ‘Clean water and sanitation!
REA (Rural Economy & Agriculture)-theme Documents which contain the term ‘irrigation’: in total 17 documents, published since 2015, contain the term ‘irrigation’, of which 8 were issued in 2016, and only ONE on April 20, 2017, and one in January 2018. Those statistics suggest, that the focus on irrigation in the political (A.U.) sphere has dwindled and lost its importance. However, scientific studies (note, even promoted by the A.U. herself) have revealed that irrigation is eligible to be promoted (again) by the A.U. herself!! See the 18th Summit of the African Heads of State and Government in January 2012 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia founding the Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA).
6. Performance on the commitments set out in the Malabo Declaration: the report revealed that only 20 of the 47 Member States that reported are on track towards achieving the commitments set out in the Malabo Declaration (score-card max. 10). The default in being on track of the 27 reporting Member states is likely caused by the default in keeping up with their financial commitments. See score-card reporting system of achieving the commitments set out in the Malabo Declaration.
B. CONCERNING POLICIES & POLICYMAKERS ON IRRIGATION IN AFRICA, APRIL / MAY 2018
1. In the Constitutive Act of the African Union: policies are set out in the Introduction, art. 3 (Objectives) and 4 (Principles)
2. Policymakers on Irrigation in Africa: – The African Ministers’ Council on Water, – UN Economic and Social Council for Africa, – STC (Specialized Technical Committee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Water and Environment), p. 60 A.U. Handbook 2018. – The Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), Johannesburg Action Plan (2016-2018), see also: FOCAC created in 2000
The Statement of both Parties (African Union – China, December 2015), gives again proof of the double standards applied in International Relationships between the A.U. and the Republic of China.
Again, at the detriment of the People of Africa! A caution to evaluate the Partnership with the Republic of China at least on a yearly basis!
From the point of view of China’s Leader, he is justified to grab the opportunity held out by the A.U.: to extend his influence on the African Territory.. And not only in the business sphere, rather more in the political realm!
In the light of a quest or struggle for independence for at least 60 years (witnessed by forming the African Union in 2000 with a Constitutive Act), it is interesting to notice that in the same year China tried to connect with Africa in a forum (FOCAC). This is not by coincidence!
I want to stress, that this is a very old strategy: keep close to your friends, but closer to your competitors or enemies (a principle applied in business and war). Are the African Leaders really so naive?? If they are, they will forego the chance to progress in uniting Africa!
C. CONCERNING SCIENTIFIC / POLITICAL STUDIES ON IRRIGATION IN AFRICA, APRIL / MAY 2018
Of all the studies mentioned the PIDA Synthesis (after analysis) published in 2018, is the paramount one:
1. UN Economic and Social Council Background paper on the subtheme ‘Clean water and sanitation.’
2. NEPAD-2017 Country Performances Reporting format on Malabo (Eng): Document for preparing country Biennial Review report on progress made for achieving the Malabo
Summary: with statistical analysis, and upper-bound scenario applied, where irrigation accounts for 100% of the increase in food requirements, the gap between food production-demand would be filled by rain-fed agriculture and international imports. Under the scenario ‘business as usual’ irrigation-development and medium population growth, the irrigated cereal production will be about 67 million tons (against 34 million tons in 2005) in 2040. Then cereal requirements will be 319 million tons (against 192 million tons in 2005).
The scientists in this study proposed the solution, to 1. complement cereal deficit with rain-fed agriculture or cereal imports. My comments: cereal imports from China?: thank you!! Question: against what kind of costs??? Too expensive! 2. intensify food production, requiring the ‘right balance’ between rain-fed and irrigated agriculture by expanding irrigated areas, increasing irrigation efficiency (alleged example: drip systems) increasing the yield of stressed river basins and weighing the possibility of inter-basin water transfer. My comment: expansion of irrigated areas AND inter-basin water transfer has been explained in the System of the Proposal for a Cross-Africa Irrigation Project / Organization, c.q. African E.P.A. The water to be delivered by the African Continent surrounding seas and oceans!
How can the Cross-Africa Irrigation Project / Organization contribute to: – bridge the water stress gaps in Africa, reported in the PIDA Phase II Study (2012) and – improve the country performance with AATC reporting (as reported) the report revealing that only 20 of the 47 reporting Member States are on track towards achieving the commitments set out in the Malabo Declaration (score-card max. 10).
1.The barrier to a smooth development of irrigation agriculture in Africa, is formed by the System suggested by the Heads of State of the A.U., in the Malabo Declaration, June 2014. The A.U. uses mainly a financial contribution method. Which is partially complemented with ‘Compensations’ from the A.U. treasury (with external resources): a very costly, each year recurring, financing system (or am I wrong??). According to the PIDA study, promoted by the Heads of State in January 2012, Addis Ababa. An annual investment of $93 billion would be required for Africa to meet its infrastructure needs. I suggest that to get to a solution of the problem, a Feasibility Study performed by the World Bank would be necessary. To show that the yearly budget for the Cross-Africa Irrigation Project will be far less than those computed by the former studies and more accommoda-tive (with a direct benefit) for the people of Africa! This, of course, under the condition that the Director of the World Bank (Dr. Jim Yong Kim) is impartial in his judgment. Why?? – If Dr. Jim Yong Kim communicates with Chinese President Xi Jin Ping on all the problems in Chinese-African relations I signalled, and – if Dr. Jim Yong Kim is a Chinese national, I need an impartial advice on my request for a feasibility study concerning the Proposal for a Cross-Africa Irrigation Project / Organization, c.q. African E.P.A.. This, to avoid appearance of bias, a rule of law! NOW (I write 21st May 2020, 23:13 o’clock (WAT)), I still did not get a response from the World Bank (I wrote in May 2018). It may confirm, that (former) Director of the World Bank, Dr. Jim Yong Kim HAD a conversation with Chinese President Xi Jin Ping …. I cannot imagine what other reason cropped up.
2. My address to the African Union: accept the Proposal of a Cross-Africa Irrigation Project / Organization, c.q. African E.P.A. and let’s work together, in order to solve Africa’s irrigation problems! Method: such as set out in the Proposal for a Cross-Africa Irrigation Project / Organization, c.q. African E.P.A. (Environmental Protection Agency), October 2015. Again: there is a Ultimate Africa’s Comprehensive Irrigation Issue Number 1, with Advantages Vision & Objectives C.A.I.P. !! with a work-out in the topics: Agriculture on the African Continent, Drip Watering System, with agricultural investment Africa low numerous opportunities.
AGAIN: WAKE UP, MOTHER AFRICA!
A. About Irrigation in the Structure of the African Union website & Policies and Policymakers on irrigation in Africa April 2018 :
1. African Union website (URL) au.int Structure, 2. African Union policies and policymakers in 2018 on irrigation.
B. Irrigation-relevant Inventory of Events and Documents / Reports of African (incl. NEPAD and PIDA Study of the African Union and U.N. Economic Commission of Africa), period 2017-2018:
1. African Union 2017 Annual Report by Executive Council, 32nd Ordinary Session, 22-26 January 2018, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia,
2. African Union Handbook 2018 (Eng)-2,
3. Decisions and Declarations ASSEMBLY OF THE UNION 28-29 January 2018 Addis Abeba, Ethiopia,
4. Decisions Executive Council AU 25-26 Jan 2018,
5. Introductory Note Chairperson Commission to 2017 Annual Report,
6. UN Economic and Social Council Background paper on the Sub-theme Clean Water and Sanitation (Eng),
7. NEPAD-2017 Country Performances Reporting Format on Malabo (Eng),
8. PIDA Study Synthesis 2018.
C. Main Documents of A.U. and UNECA period 2016 – 2018:
1. Documents of African Union period 2016 – 2018,
2. Documents of the UN Economic Commission Africa 2016 -2018.
Dr. Mr. Hans Pronk, Med. Doctor, Internat. Lawyer, M.B.A., Specialist in Environmental Management and International Organizations (incl. W. H. O.); worked as a (civil) Doctor with the Dutch Military Forces (incl. screening for Peace-keeping Operations in Southern Europe), 18 years, and with Ghana Effia Nkwanta Regional Hospital, 13 years
An Echo of C.A.I.P.’s Vision & Objectives!
So far: Ultimate Africa’s Comprehensive Irrigation Issue Number 1, Advantages Vision & Objectives C.A.I.P. Agriculture in Africa, Drip Irrigation System, agricultural investment Africa low numerous opportunities
RELEVANT INTERNAL LINKS: – Not to trust Chinese Government Actions, neither on African Continent – Unique, First Class Coup du Monde, attempted by China, backed-up by Russia – Ultimate Gains Cross-Africa Irrigation Project number 1 – Health Effects Heavy Metals by Western Region Illegal Gold Mining in Ghana – Complaint to World Health Organization about Malpractices Mining Ghana – Double Agenda Mining Activities cause Tarkwa Water Pollution with Heavy Metals!! – Ultimate C.A.I.P African Nations Eligible for Irrigation Channels number 1 – Ultimate Geometry Frameworks number 1 – Ultimate Recommendations number 1 – Ultimate Forum C.A.I.P. Registration Irrigateafrica.net Number 1 – Why C.A.I.P.’s irrigation of Africa is urgent and number 1! – Water Pollution in Africa hazards Ultimate Number 1 to eliminate definitely – Ultimate Irrigation Role of AU Number 1 – Role Cross-Africa Irrigation Project – Join Direct/Indirect Interest Membership Ultimate Number 1 – Political Exploitation current COVID-19 Spread Ghana Number 1 – Summary Cross-Africa Irrigation Project Ultimate Number 1 – Ultimate CEO Irrigateafrica.net number 1